Pharmacological basis of opioids dependence (addiction) and its

Karami, Mohammad and Hossini, Ebrahim and ShahabiMajd, Naghi and Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali and Alemy, Shahrbano (2013) Pharmacological basis of opioids dependence (addiction) and its. Clinical Excellence, 1 (2). pp. 97-114.

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Dependence (addiction) and tolerance is acquired as a result of repeated drug use, its effects will gradually diminish and so after a while the person will tolerate toxic levels of the drug without causing discomfort. Structure of Morphine have five rings with profile A (Aromatic), B (Cyclohexane), C (Cyclohexane), D (Piperidine) and E (Tetrahydrofuran) , all derivatives of morphine which have these cyclic structures would have addictive potential that were compatible with their analgesic effect. Thousands of years ago, opioid compounds were used for pain relief, analgesia, induction of anesthesia (Fentanyl), alternative treatments for addiction, treatment of diarrhea (Diphenoxylate), pulmonary edema and coughs (Codeine). The main side effects of these drugs are suppression of breathing and decreased response to carbon dioxide in the blood that can cause respiratory failure and subsequent death. There are different treatments for addiction including Acupuncture therapy (electro Acupuncture), Sleep therapy, Ooccupational therapy, the placebo-treated through detoxification, Methadone, Buprenorphine or Alpha agonist receptor detoxification, Opioid antagonist drugs and treatment with herbal drugs

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Morphine, Addiction, Pharmacology, Methods of Treatment
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email
Date Deposited: 04 Jan 2018 17:08
Last Modified: 04 Jan 2018 17:08

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